TRICKLING FILTERS


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<emphasis role="bold">TRICKLING FILTERS</emphasis>
<emphasis role="bold">TRICKLING FILTERS</emphasis>During the first five decades of use, trickling filters included soil and rock biofilm carriers and their design was scattered and empirical in nature. During the 1950s and 1960s, Dow Chemical Co. (Midland, Michigan) began early experimentation with modular plastic packing media (Bryan, 1955; Bryan and Moeller, 1960). Other studies during that time that resulted in development of accepted design protocol (Howland, 1958; Schulze, 1960; Eckenfelder, 1961 and 1963; Atkinson et al., 1963; Galler and Gotaas, 1964; Germain, 1966). In the early 1970s, when U.S. EPA issued its definition of secondary treatment standards, the trickling-filter was regarde…
Citation
Water Environment Federation: Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants: WEF Manual of Practice No. 8 ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 76, Fifth Edition. TRICKLING FILTERS, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2010), AccessEngineering Export